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In-depth treatment of selected topics in Taiwan law for legal professionals

Effects of Taiwan’s foreign investment regulations on acquisitions

We strongly encourage any foreign individual, company or corporation (a “Foreign Buyer”) that is contemplating the acquisition of either (i) a Taiwan company Target (a “Taiwan Target”) or (ii) an offshore Target (an “Offshore Target”) that has a Taiwan subsidiary, to consider the effects of Taiwan’s foreign investment regulations on the planned transaction. While Taiwan’s foreign investment regulations can directly impact the structure of such an acquisition, an equally important, but often overlooked, issue is the effect these regulations may have on post-acquisition reorganization and operation of the Target.

Pursuant to Taiwan’s Statute for Investment by Foreign Nationals, any direct acquisition of a Taiwan Target by a Foreign Buyer requires Foreign Investment Approval (“FIA”). In addition to the obvious effect that obtaining the FIA would have on the timing of the acquisition, the related FIA regulations may also affect the transaction structure. For instance, the FIA regulations make it practically impossible to structure a direct acquisition of a Taiwan Target with any type of holdback, earn out or other form of deferred payment mechanism. (See our article here for more information on the effects of the FIA process on deferred payment mechanisms as well as a convenient workaround.)

In a large global acquisition, Foreign Buyer may be transacting with an offshore Seller to purchase an Offshore Target that has subsidiaries worldwide, including in Taiwan. Under these circumstances, FIA is typically not required in Taiwan. A common exception to this general rule arises when (i) Offshore Target’s Taiwan subsidiary has minority shareholders and (ii) these minority shareholders will have their shares purchased by either the Offshore Target or the Foreign Buyer as part of the transaction. FIA is required under these circumstances as there is a direct transfer of Taiwan assets (i.e., the shares in the Taiwan subsidiary) to a foreign purchaser.

Whether FIA is required for Foreign Buyer’s initial acquisition, Foreign Buyer should always consider the impact of the FIA regulations on any expected post-acquisition transactions in Taiwan. Common post-acquisition transactions that require prior FIA include:

(a) injecting equity capital into the Taiwanese subsidiary;

(b) providing a loan to the Taiwanese subsidiary for a term exceeding one year;

(c) investing in another company through the Taiwanese subsidiary;

(d) transferring some or all of the shares in the Taiwanese subsidiary to another person, including any post-acquisition restructuring of Foreign Buyer and related companies which results in the transfer of shares of the Taiwan subsidiary; and

(e) reducing the capital of, or winding down, the Taiwanese subsidiary.

As stated above, any foreign corporation or individual that is contemplating the purchase of a Taiwan Target or an Offshore Target that holds a Taiwan subsidiary should first evaluate Taiwan’s foreign investment regulations, with respect to not only the structuring of the initial acquisition, but also the post-acquisition operations and reorganization of the Target.

For more information on mergers, acquisitions, and foreign investment matters in Taiwan, please contact Gregory Buxton at gbuxton@winklerpartners.com or +886 223112345 ext. 548.

Ten tips for Taiwan employment contracts

Employment in Taiwan has increasingly become a prominent issue, with the number of employment law disputes brought by employees rising significantly in recent years. Below is a list of ten useful tips for Taiwan employers to keep in mind when negotiating and drafting their written employment agreements. While not exhaustive, the following list is aimed at providing some guidance to Taiwan employers in using their employment agreements to address some key issues we regularly come across in our employment law practice.

1. Use a written employment contract

Taiwan has no specific laws or regulations that specifically govern employment contracts, and as such, a degree of flexibility is granted to employers with regard to the format of their employment agreements. While there is no express law that mandates written employment contracts, to ensure clarity and to avoid potential future disputes with employees, in Taiwan it is advisable for employers to use written employment contracts.

2. Use an employee handbook/work rules

Employers who hire 30 or more employees must have an employee handbook or work rules. Even if the threshold of 30 employees has not been met, many companies choose to have separate work rules or an employee handbook, which also forms part of the employment contract. Having a separate (but binding) document which details elements of the employment relationship such as IP rights, discipline and restrictive covenants, affords employers greater security with regard to the mutual rights and obligations arising under the employment contract.

3. Clarify the term of the contract

Employment contracts in Taiwan are indefinite-term contracts unless otherwise specified as fixed-term, and statutory employment rights are enjoyed upon commencement of employment. While probationary periods can form part of employment contracts in Taiwan, as termination in Taiwan is not at-will, but rather must comply with specific requirements under the Labor Standards Act (the “LSA”). Probationary periods which provide for termination are of limited practical use in Taiwan.

4. Protect your intellectual property

It is best practice for employment contracts to clearly define both ownership and creation rights in relation to all existing and potential intellectual property that is within the particular employee’s scope of work. Protection can be enhanced by referring in the contract to the employee handbook or some other written agreement, which in turn details relevant IP rights with greater specificity.

5. Clearly define restrictive covenants

Similar to IP rights, clearly describing the employee’s rights and obligations both during and post-employment with respect to trade secrets, competition, solicitation and confidential information is a crucial aspect of any employment contract in Taiwan. The scope of the restrictions or covenants relating to competition and solicitation must be reasonable, the length of the non-compete clause must be no longer than two years, the employer must have a legitimate interest to be protected, the departed employee’s job duties and position must be sufficient to grant the employee access to the legitimate interest the employer seeks to protect, and the employee must receive reasonable compensation for any loss caused by agreeing to the non-compete clause. If the clause does not conform to the above principles, a Taiwan court will most likely find it to be unenforceable in Taiwan.

6. Comply with relevant laws relating to transfer/severance of employees

When a business entity undergoes restructuring or changes ownership, any employees terminated as a result must be given the requisite advance notice as well as severance payment under the LSA. The LSA lists specific circumstances where an employee can be legally terminated in Taiwan with notice and severance pay, such as where the business transfers ownership or there is a suspension of operations. There are very limited circumstances where an employer may terminate an employee without notice or severance, such as where there is a serious breach of the employment contract or disclosure of business secrets by the employee.

7. Choose the right language

Taiwan courts will enforce both Chinese and English employment contracts, however it is best practice for employers to specifically state that if there is a conflict between the two, which version prevails. In most instances the prevailing version is Chinese.

8. Define jurisdiction and dispute resolution avenues

Employees may apply for mediation, with each local government in Taiwan having an employment center that offers mediation and free legal support to employees involved in disputes with their employers. Taiwan courts have specialized divisions to handle labor-related cases. It is common practice for many employment contracts, particularly for those involving foreign entities or foreign workers, to contain a provision stating that the governing law in the event of a dispute is that of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and that the parties must first use reasonable efforts to come to a negotiated solution through consultation or mediation before resorting to litigation.

9. Detail statutory benefits

Taiwan law mandates that employers who have established a legal entity in Taiwan must contribute to each employee’s National Health Insurance as well as Labor Insurance schemes. These and other benefits (such as labor insurance, parental leave, pension contributions, etc.), which must be paid for by the employer, cannot be unfavorably altered in an employment agreement by the employer.

10. Avoid making changes in working conditions

Restrictions are placed on employers who attempt to change working conditions (such as the place of work) in an employment contract. For example, many international companies wish to be able to dictate their employees’ place of work arbitrarily; however recent amendments to the LSA now provide that employers seeking to do so must abide with some general principles or else be found to have breached both the employment contract and the LSA. These include: (a) the change must be based on the needs of the business and be for a proper purpose, (b) no unfavorable changes can be made to salary or other working conditions, (c) changes must be suited to the specific employee’s skills and abilities, (d) employers must provide assistance to employees if the place of work is inconvenient, and (e) employers must consider the interests of employee’s families and lives.

Keeping in mind the above ten points when drafting your employment agreements can help to avoid potential employment disputes arising in the first place. For more information on employment law matters in Taiwan, please contact Christine Chen cchen@winklerpartners.com or +886 (0) 223112345 extension 307.

What’s in a name? Protection of famous names in Taiwan

In Taiwan, trademark protection is obtained through registration. The well-known name of an individual can, of course, be registered as a trademark and used as such in connection with the designated goods and services and preclude the unauthorized use of the same or similar famous name by another party. But what about the famous names of individuals that have not been registered as trademarks in Taiwan? Explicit protection is provided to famous names under Article 30 (1)(13) of Taiwan’s Trademark Act (the “Act”), which provides:

A trademark may not be registered in any of the following circumstances:

13. The trademark contains another person’s image or well-known name, stage name, pen name or pseudonym. This restriction shall not apply, however, if the other person has consented to the application for registration.

In determining whether a trademark is prevented from being registered under the Act on the basis of its similarity to a famous name, the Taiwan Intellectual Property Office (“the TIPO”) decides on a case-by-case basis whether

(a) the name is sufficiently well-known to the relevant consumers, and

(b) whether there is a likelihood of a mental association or confusion by the relevant consumers between the unauthorized mark and the famous name.

While the name must be well-known in Taiwan to be entitled to such protection, evidence to prove the name is famous from other jurisdictions can be provided to the TIPO to aid it in making its decision. Historically, the TIPO has required that the full name of the well-known person be used in order for Article 30 (1)(13) to apply. In some recent decisions, however, the TIPO has held that a mark that incorporates parts of well-known names can be denied registration on this basis, provided sufficient evidence can be produced to establish the two criteria above.

Is a Partial Name Sufficient for Protection under Article 30 (1)(13)?

In reviewing applications for trademark registration and deciding opposition actions, the TIPO will look to the inherent distinctiveness of the well-known name (or part thereof) as well as other factors to determine whether a likelihood of confusion or mental association may arise between the unauthorized registration containing the famous name and the famous name itself by the relevant consumers.  Other provisions of the Act require that the mark for which registration is sought creates a likelihood of confusion or a likelihood of dilution in order for the registration to be denied. Article 30 (1)(13), in contrast, does not mention either of these factors as an explicit requirement. In practice, though, the TIPO requires evidence that there is a likelihood of a mental association being formed by the relevant consumers between the famous name and the unauthorized mark which uses all or part of the famous name.

One of the first instances where the TIPO recognized the ability for an abbreviated famous name to be protected was a trademark opposition case in 2005 relating to the name “Beckham (貝克漢)”.[1] In that case, the TIPO canceled a trademark registration for the name “Beckham” on the basis that the purpose of this provision was to protect an individual’s inherent right to use of his or her own name and image, and to prevent a mental association being formed between the famous name and the unauthorized mark among the relevant consumers should the registration be allowed. The TIPO held that the name “Beckham”, despite being an abbreviation of the name “David Beckham (大衛貝克漢)”, was sufficiently globally-recognized and distinctive on its own so as to be afforded protection under the Act and therefore canceled the unauthorized mark.  A similar case in 2006 by the TIPO involved the cancellation of the registered mark “Tomford” on the basis of its similarity to the name “Tom Ford”, the well-known American fashion designer.[2] The TIPO again based its decision to cancel the registration on the need to protect an individual’s rights to his or her own image and name, and to avoid a mental association being formed between the famous name “Tom Ford” and the unauthorized registered mark “Tomford”.

In a more recent decision of the TIPO in 2014, which related to a well-known Japanese actress with the stage name “波多野結衣” (“Hatano Yui”), the TIPO held that incorporation of the name “波多野Hatano” into a trademark by another registrant who was not the individual or her authorized representative could be canceled.[3] This decision is another instance where the TIPO has recognized that an abbreviated name can attract the protection of Article 30 (1)(13) of the Act. The TIPO expressly stated that Article 30 (1)(13) is aimed at protecting the rights of individuals to his or her own name or image, or the right of another person to register the individual’s name with express consent.

The above decisions show that the TIPO is willing to apply Article 30(1)(13) of the Act to protect well-known names from unauthorized use in trademarks by others even in cases where only part of the well-known name is used.  Evidence will need to be adduced to establish that the name (in its entirety or the distinctive portion of the name), is well-known to the relevant consumers in Taiwan as the name of a famous individual. Evidence will also need to be submitted that shows the trademark creates a likelihood of a mental association being formed between the famous name and the unauthorized registration by the relevant consumers. Assuming that evidence supports these conclusions, the individual or their authorized agent can preclude others from registering a trademark that contains the well-known name under Article 30 (1)(13) of the Act.


[1] Trademark Opposition No. Zhong-Tai-Yi-G00930220: http://tmsearch.tipo.gov.tw/RAVS/wfm30203.jsp?bid=17407

[2] Trademark Opposition No. Zhong-Tai-Yi-G00940476: http://tmsearch.tipo.gov.tw/RAVS/wfm30203.jsp?bid=21673

[3] Trademark Opposition No. Zhong-Tai-Yi-G01020439: http://tmsearch.tipo.gov.tw/RAVS/wfm30203.jsp?bid=152290&rid=&Print=Y

Enforcement of Chinese judgments and arbitral awards in Taiwan: the res judicata problem

Taiwan’s Supreme Court recently affirmed in Shending Law Firm v. Tien Chin Yu Machinery Mfg. Co., Ltd. Chinese judgments and arbitral awards do not have res judicata effect even if they are recognized by the Taiwanese courts. 104 Taishang Zi No. 33. In contrast, foreign judgments and arbitral awards (including those from Hong Kong and Macau) are routinely recognized and enforced.

Tien Chin Yu (“TCY”) is a Taiwanese manufacturer of flexographic printing and corrugator machinery. In 2003, it retained a law firm in Guangdong, China to act for it in litigation against a printing company in Dongguan.

The law firm’s engagement agreement provided that if TCY terminated the representation for any reason other than the law firm’s malfeasance or a breach of the agreement, TCY would have to return any funds advanced by the law firm plus 20% of the amount of TCY’s claim. According to TCY, the law firm failed to keep it informed during the course of the litigation. Although TCY eventually prevailed on some claims but not on others, it decided not to appeal and terminated the representation.

The law firm demanded its fees under the agreement’s 20% termination penalty and submitted the dispute to CIETAC’s South China Sub-Commission pursuant to the agreement’s arbitration clause. The law firm prevailed in the CIETAC proceedings and was awarded about US$110,000 in damages.

The Taoyuan District Court in northern Taiwan duly recognized the CIETAC award in 2009, rejecting TCY’s contentions that the award violated public policy in Taiwan.  After the Taiwan High Court upheld the District Court’s recognition of the Chinese arbitral award the law firm applied for compulsory enforcement of the award in the Taoyuan District Court’s enforcement division. In response, TCY filed an action asserting objections concerning the claim itself as established by the judgment (zhaiwuren yiyi zhi su) in the Taoyuan District Court’s civil division (this statutory cause of action has its roots in German law).

In general, an action objecting to the claim itself as established by the judgment is precluded from raising claims germane to the underlying action by Taiwan’s version of res judicata. This res judicata effect is well established for not only Taiwanese final judgments, but also recognized final foreign judgments and arbitral awards as well as. It bars the claimant from raising any claim that was or should have been raised by the time of final oral arguments. As a result, the judgment debtor in these circumstances is normally limited to raising objections based on new facts that arose after final oral arguments such as a post-judgment satisfaction.

However, TCY’s action attempted to raise defenses such as the illegality of the 20% penalty clause under Taiwan law and the unreasonableness of the legal fees. While the Taoyuan District Court and the Taiwan High Court dismissed TCY’s action on grounds that a Chinese arbitral award should have res judicata effect once it has been recognized by the Taiwanese courts, the Supreme Court held for TCY and remanded the case back the lower courts for a decision on the merits of TCY’s defenses to the underlying claim.

The Supreme Court reasoned that when the Taiwan Legislature enacted Article 74 of the the Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area, it intended that a judgment or arbitral award from China could serve as a writ of execution if recognized by a Taiwanese court but not as a  final judgment. In other words, a judgment or arbitral award from China is enforceable through the compulsory execution process but it does not have the same res judicata effect as a final Taiwanese judgment or arbitral award.

The Supreme Court based this distinction on a close reading of the statutory language used in Article 74 of the Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area. This language differs from the language in the Civil Code and the Compulsory Execution Act applicable to from judgments and arbitral awards jurisdictions other than PRC that recognize Taiwanese judgments. Civil Code §402; Compulsory Execution Act §4-1. The Supreme Court inferred that Taiwan’s legislature intended the PRC’s legal system to be treated sui generis to protect the rights and interests of Taiwanese citizens in view of the special relationship with China and the differences between the two legal systems.

While the Supreme Court previously issued three judgments nearly a decade ago with similar holdings(96 Taishang Zi No. 2531, 97 Taishang Zi No. 2258, and 97 Taishang 2376), a number of lower courts including the Taiwan High Court have reached different conclusions in the interim. Shending Law Firm unequivocally rejects the theories of the lower courts and reaffirms that Taiwan does not recognize Chinese judgments and awards as having the same res judicata effect as those from other foreign jurisdictions including Hong Kong and Macau. Consequently, while enforcement of a Chinese judgment or arbitral award is still ultimately possible in Taiwan, the underlying claims are likely to be relitigated on the merits.

The result for the foreseeable future is that when faced with the increasingly common situation of a potential dispute with Taiwanese business partners in China whose assets are in Taiwan, practitioners should choose dispute resolution in an appropriate third jurisdiction or possibly in Taiwan itself if there is any possibility that the judgment or arbitral award must be enforced here. For the same reasons, it is also very important to realize that one is dealing with an entity whose principals or parent are based in Taiwan.

One caveat is that the third jurisdiction must always be checked to see if Taiwan will recognize judgments and arbitral awards from that jurisdiction. In the case of most (but by no means all) leading jurisdictions, Taiwan will recognize and enforce judgments and arbitral awards without excessive scrutiny on public policy grounds as was initially the case with the CIETAC award.

Deferred purchase price payment in Taiwan acquisitions

Your business team has discovered a company in Taiwan (the “Target”) which has an interesting new technology, a foothold in the China market, or some other asset or relationship which they feel would be a welcome addition to your company.  The business team has recommended that your company (“Foreign Co.”) acquire the Target.  So, now you must consider how best to structure this acquisition.  There are, of course, many and varied issues to consider when structuring any Taiwan acquisition.  This brief note focuses on only one (but an important one) of these issues:  deferred purchase price payment mechanisms (e.g., holdbacks, escrows, earn-outs, etc.).

Without going into detail, any foreign company wishing to acquire a company in Taiwan must apply to the Investment Commission (the “IC”) of the Taiwan Ministry of Economic Affairs for Foreign Investment Approval (“FIA”).  As part of the approval process, the IC needs to confirm that the seller is receiving fair value for its interest in the Target.  In and of itself, this appears to be a rather innocuous provision.  However, in practice the IC will not grant a FIA in a situation where the seller will tender its shares in Target at closing for (a) some amount of consideration at closing, plus (b) a conditional payment of additional consideration some time after closing.  In order to procure a FIA, the IC must find that the amount of consideration paid at closing is equal to the fair value of the Target shares tendered by the seller at closing.

The question then becomes how do you structure any kind of escrow arrangement, holdback or earn-out if the IC is not going to assign any value to conditional payments which may or may not be made post-closing?

The simplest and most common workaround is to set up a local, Taiwan acquisition vehicle.  Rather than purchasing Target directly, Foreign Co. sets up a local Taiwan company (“Taiwan Co.”) to acquire the Target.  When you set up Taiwan Co., you will still need to go through the FIA process.  But, the nature of the FIA review will be different than the review for an acquisition.  The review in connection with establishing Taiwan Co. will focus on whether Foreign Co. has adequately funded Taiwan Co. to carry out its expected business and operations in Taiwan.  This FIA process is relatively straightforward.  And, once the FIA is granted, Foreign Co. can then fund Taiwan Co. with sufficient amounts to acquire the Target.

Taiwan Co.’s acquisition of the Target would be further subject to another FIA review.  But, like the review in connection with Taiwan Co.’s initial funding, the FIA review of a domestic acquisition by a foreign-invested Taiwan enterprise would not include an examination of the consideration to be exchanged for the Target’s shares.  In effect, Taiwan Co. would be free to enter into a purchase agreement for shares of Target including any manner of escrow, holdback or earn-out provisions you felt necessary and advisable under the circumstances.

Benefits of offshore holding companies

A significant portion of Winkler Partners’ corporate practice involves advising international clients on how best to structure their businesses in Taiwan.  One of the first questions each international client typically asks when planning to enter the Taiwan market is:  What type of entity is appropriate for its purposes in Taiwan?  While this is a valid and important question, it may in some cases focus the structuring discussions too narrowly and thereby inadvertently overlook more advantageous structuring alternatives.

Assuming that the client needs a business entity in Taiwan in order to conduct its affairs here in accordance with Taiwan law, it is almost always worth considering establishing an offshore holding company to own and/or control  the Taiwan entity.  Set forth below is a list, although not exhaustive, of some of the key advantages that our clients have gained through the use of offshore vehicles in connection with their Taiwan corporate structures.

  1. Corporate Law Follows International Norms.  There are a number of provisions in Taiwan’s Company Act that restrict the ability of company promoters, directors, and managers to accomplish certain transactions that may seem relatively routine in their home jurisdictions.  For instance, Taiwan’s Company Act generally prohibits a company from repurchasing its own shares.  Taiwan company board meetings must be held in person or by video conference and resolutions must be passed by vote of the attending directors.  Signed written resolutions in lieu of such a meeting will NOT suffice.  Another Company Act provision stipulates that the original company promoter (i.e., the initial shareholder(s)) may not transfer shares of the newly established company for a period of one year following the company’s establishment.

    By establishing an offshore holding vehicle, the shareholders can govern their relationship to each other and to the corporate entity offshore of Taiwan.  Most of the more common offshore jurisdictions (e.g., the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, etc.) allow:  (i) directors to pass written resolutions without convening a meeting; (ii) original promoters to sell their interests freely; and (iii) the company to repurchase its own shares, subject to reasonable restrictions.

    In addition to being generally more permissive in the types of allowable corporate transactions, many offshore jurisdictions such as the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands allow companies established there to tailor their organizational documents (i.e., Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association).  In most cases, corporate legislation in these jurisdictions is subject to the specific provisions of a company’s organizational documents, meaning that the offshore company has the power to “opt-out” of undesirable or unnecessary statutory default provisions.

  2. Tax and Legal Liability Advantages.  If the client is contemplating expatriating profits from Taiwan back to its home office (or some other affiliate outside of Taiwan), we typically consider establishing a branch office here in Taiwan.  The primary advantage of having a Taiwan branch (instead of a Taiwan subsidiary) is that the Taiwan tax authorities do not require the 20% withholding on amounts transferred by a branch office back to its home office as they do in respect of amounts paid as dividends or otherwise from a Taiwan subsidiary to its offshore parent.  However, as a branch is not a separate juridical person for legal purposes, the home office is considered to be doing business directly in Taiwan, and therefore, it may be directly liable for all debts and liabilities of its branch here.  Having an offshore vehicle interjected between the ultimate home company and the Taiwan branch provides the tax advantages of the branch structure while maintaining the legal liability shield associated with a subsidiary.

  3. More Attractive to Investors.  If a client were considering seeking additional investment for its Taiwan operations, using an offshore holding company can increase the attractiveness of the investment to potential investors.  Some offshore jurisdictions, unlike Taiwan, do not require shares to have a par value.  Being able to issue no par value shares allows the board complete flexibility in setting the share price to prospective new investors.  This flexibility, coupled with the comfort foreign investors typically have with the corporate governance and minority shareholder protections in the more common offshore jurisdictions, increases the client’s ability to raise necessary additional investment.

Again, the items listed above are by no means an exhaustive list of the benefits that an offshore vehicle may provide.  And, the use of an offshore vehicle may not be appropriate in all circumstances.  However, it is an option that in most cases should at least be considered when structuring an organization’s legal presence in Taiwan.

Technical examination officers at Taiwan’s IP Court

Technical Examination Officers ( “TEO“) are officers of the court who assist judges at the Taiwan Intellectual Property Court (“IP Court“) in litigation involving complex technology.

There are currently 13 TEOs at the IP Court with expertise in fields such as electrical engineering, chemistry, and biotechnology. Most are patent examiners on secondment from the Taiwan Intellectual Property Office.

Taiwan’s Legislature authorized the appointment of TEOs when it established the IP Court in 2007. Intellectual Property Court Organization Act §15(1).  Taiwan’s TEOs are modeled on the judicial researchers at the Japan’s Intellectual Property High Court and the technical examiners at the Korean Patent Court.

Acting under instructions from a judge, a TEO “makes judgments about technology, collects technical information, and analyzes and gives opinions about technology.” Organization Act §15(3). In particular, a TEO can analyze and organize the issues in party briefs to clarify the issues in dispute and refer the Court to learned treatises in the field. Intellectual Property Case Adjudication Rules §13(1)(a).

A TEO may also “participate in the litigation.” Organization Act §15. This means that on instructions from a judge, a TEO can appear in court and question parties, their counsel, and witnesses or give opinions for the court’s reference on technical issues. Intellectual Property Case Adjudication Act §4;  Adjudication Rules §13(1)(c).

In more complex cases, a TEO may be ordered  by the IP Court to produce intermediate and final reports on technical issues. Adjudication Rules §16. While the parties do not have access to these reports, the IP Court will disclose opinions it has received on “specialized technical information” to the parties and give an opportunity to respond before using such opinions as the basis for its judgment. Adjudication Rules §16

As fact finders, the IP Court judges are not bound to adopt the views of the TEO and in complex cases, the IP Court will usually also appoint an neutral expert witness to evaluate the technology in dispute. Furthermore, the statements of TEOs may not be offered by the parties as evidence of facts in dispute. Adjudication Rules §18.

Between 2008 and 2012, TEOs were assigned to a total of 1,636 cases. 1,070 of those cases were civil matters, 550 were administrative and sixteen cases were criminal. TEOs provided assistance with mechanical technologies in 48% of these cases, IT in 26%, and chemistry in 8%.

Although the role of TEOs has been controversial in patent litigation and the subject of a number of Supreme Court cases, our experience has been that TEOs serve as able assistants to the judges on the IP Court.

Setting up a business in Taiwan: the basics

Taiwan ranks highly on both the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness List and the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business List.[1] With strong air, trade and freight links to China, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Silicon Valley, Taiwan is a convenient hub for doing business with the rest of Asia and abroad. It also has a sophisticated domestic transportation system. Taiwan is home to a robust research and development sector, advanced domestic infrastructure, a stable political climate and a free press, a sound legal framework, and a dynamic and educated workforce. These factors have recently led an increasing number of international businesses to choose Taiwan as their regional headquarters or regional hubs.[2]

Companies wishing to establish business operations in Taiwan typically form one of the following: a Representative Office, a Branch, a Limited Company, or a Company Limited by Shares. Set forth below is a brief introduction to each of these business forms and their typical business use.

Representative Office

Many foreign entities prefer to set up a Representative Office in Taiwan prior to making the more substantial commitment involved in establishing a branch or a subsidiary. Establishing a Representative Office is one of the easiest ways to establish a business presence in Taiwan. However, a Representative Office is very restricted in terms of the activities it can undertake. A Representative Office may operate in Taiwan only as the agent of its overseas principal and is not considered a separate legal entity. It may not engage in profit-seeking commercial activities nor act as principal in any domestic business transaction. A Representative Office is also not allowed to sell goods or provide services in Taiwan. Typically, a Representative Office functions as a sales or purchasing agent for international businesses which have no other presence in Taiwan. Representative Offices are also used to provide technical support and training as well as to oversee quality control in Taiwan.

Branch

A foreign company may also establish a Branch to conduct business in Taiwan. Like a Representative Office, a Branch is not considered an independent legal entity, and so does not need to have shareholders, directors, or supervisors, as would be the case with a subsidiary. The cost of corporate secretarial maintenance for a Branch, therefore, is lower than that of a subsidiary. The major benefit of establishing a Branch over a subsidiary is that all after-tax profit may be legally remitted to the home company overseas without incurring additional withholding taxes in Taiwan. The primary drawback of a Branch is that it is a legal extension of its foreign home company, and therefore the home company remains legally liable for all acts of the Branch. Branches are most appropriate in situations where considerable funds are to be expatriated to the foreign home company from Taiwan. Branches are also sometimes preferred in large public infrastructure projects as the Taiwan government and often commercial counterparties would like to have legal recourse to the assets of the foreign home company.

Limited Company

In addition to Representative Offices and Branches, which are merely local extensions of the foreign home company, foreign companies may also establish a legally distinct subsidiary in Taiwan. The simplest form of subsidiary is a Limited Company. Taiwan Limited Companies are similar in structure to US limited liability companies. Taiwan Limited Companies are organized by one or more members, with each member, in general, being only liable to the extent of his or her individual capital contribution. A Limited Company, as opposed to a Company Limited by Shares (described below), has more flexibility in terms of structuring its corporate governance. This flexibility, however, comes at the cost of a significant impediment to transfer of interests in a Limited Company. If a director of a Limited Company wishes to transfer his or her interest in such company, the transfer must be consented to by all other members of the company. Any other member of a Limited Company who wishes to transfer his or her interest in such company must have the transfer consented to by a majority of other members. Many foreign companies choose to set up their Taiwan subsidiaries as Limited Companies, if such subsidiaries are to be wholly-owned for the foreseeable future.

Company Limited by Shares

International investors and business people choose to set up a wholly-owned subsidiary as a Company Limited by Shares if there is the possibility of selling some part of their interests in the Taiwan subsidiary. A Company Limited by Shares is similar in form to a US corporation. Shareholder liability is limited to the amount of each shareholder’s capital contribution. A Company Limited by Shares is subject to certain corporate structural requirements: it must have shareholders (at least two individual shareholders or one juridical person shareholder), directors (at least three) and a supervisor (at least one). A Company Limited by Shares can, unlike a Limited Company, become a public company in Taiwan.


[1] See, Invest in Taiwan website: <<http://investtaiwan.nat.gov.tw/eng/show.jsp?ID=3&MID=2>>

[2]See, Starting a Business in Taiwan website: <<http://www.startabusinessintaiwan.tw/additional-resources/22-an-overview-of-taiwan/103-advantages-doing-business-taiwan>>

Food Safety: A Legal Perspective

WP partners Peter Dernbach, Gary Kuo and paralegal Michael Fahey recently contributed an article to the American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei (AmCham)’s monthly TOPICS magazine. The article takes a look at the recent set of food scandals that have shaken the public’s faith in Taiwan’s food industry, examining it from a legal perspective.

The article summarizes previous food scandals that have occurred in Taiwan, dating back to the bran oil tragedy in 1979, which claimed the lives of over fifty people and caused significant physical harm to many others.

The article goes on to analyze the key litigation following the 2011 plasticizer scandal and the 2013 olive oil scandal. Peter and Gary explain the successful criminal prosecutions in both cases, the failure of a class action in the olive oil case, and the constitutional issues that led the Ministry of Health and Welfare to roll back massive fines imposed by local governments.

The article concludes that while Taiwan has made significant and admirable strides in its legal system since the 1979 bran oil tragedy, it will need to do much more to ensure that the country’s vibrant culinary culture and consumer health are adequately protected.

The entire article is available on AmCham’s website.

Taiwan’s Personal Information Protection Act: one year on

After nearly two years of delay, Taiwan’s Personal Information Protection Act took effect in October 2012. Partner Chen Hui-ling contributed this analysis of the PIPA’s implementation in its first year to Privacy Laws & Business International Report (127).  She analyzes civil and criminal cases and comments on enforcement and the prospects for data breach class actions in Taiwan.

The article can be downloaded here.

 

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