This article briefly explores under what circumstances a Buyer involved in a corporate asset purchase might be subject to successor liability in Taiwan. This question would obviously be relevant to any foreign Buyer purchasing Taiwan corporate assets, whether in a one-off transaction or as part of a larger global acquisition.
Anyone that has been involved in an asset purchase in the United States has likely heard of successor liability. The doctrine of successor liability in the US derives generally from common law (both state and federal) and in a few specific areas from statute. For the more adventuresome soul, there are academic articles of over one hundred pages in length devoted to the myriad variations of successor liability. However, stated simply, successor liability refers to the body of judge-made law and statutes that creates exceptions to the general rule of no successor liability in the context of asset acquisitions. This simple definition will suffice for the purposes of this short article.
As a threshold matter, it is important to note that Taiwan is a civil law jurisdiction. Therefore, most law related to successor liability is derived from statute. Apart from this distinction, the analysis in Taiwan begins, as it does in the US, with the general doctrine that no liability is transferred to Buyer in an asset acquisition.
Again, as in the US, there is the obvious exception that liabilities may be transferred to Buyer if Buyer has assumed such liabilities. Although Taiwan courts have decided cases on the express assumption of liabilities, the courts offer little guidance on the exact contractual language which would specifically disclaim the transfer of such liabilities.
Theoretically, Taiwan also has successor liability based on a de facto merger rule. Taiwan’s Civil Code provides that a court may re-characterize an asset purchase transaction as a merger if the court determines that despite taking the form of an asset purchase, the substantive result of such transaction is a merger of Buyer’s and Seller’s businesses. If a de facto merger is deemed to have occurred, Buyer would inherit all liabilities of Seller. However, to date Taiwan courts have not heard a related case. It is unclear what factors would be instructive as to whether an ostensible asset purchase rose to the level of a de facto merger.
In addition to rules related to express assumption of liabilities and de facto mergers, Taiwan has a number of statutory provisions in its Civil Code designed to provide relief to any person (“Creditor”) (i) originally owed an obligation (financial or otherwise) by Seller and (ii) who has been denied the ability to enforce such obligation due to a spurious or disingenuous asset sale, i.e. a fraudulent transfer. It is important to note that the definition of Creditors for the purposes of Taiwan law in this area is very broad. It is not limited to financial creditors, but would include a wide range of persons who have valid claims to enforce monetary or performance obligations against Seller, e.g., employees who are owed back pay or pension amounts, product liability claimants, etc.
In addition to the general anti-fraud provisions of Taiwan’s Civil Code, Taiwan’s Business Mergers and Acquisitions Act (“BMAA”) contains a procedural mechanism to inhibit fraudulent transfers. Pursuant to the BMAA, any Seller intending to transfer all or substantially all of its assets must notify its Creditors of such transfer. Seller must then allow Creditors thirty days to object to the transfer. If Seller fails to provide notice and allow sufficient time for Creditors’ response or does not otherwise provide for the settlement of obligations owed to its Creditors, the asset sale would be invalid with respect to later objecting Creditors. Such Creditors could theoretically enforce their rights against the purchased assets, even after such assets were transferred to Buyer. Any such enforcement action would likely encounter a considerable number of substantive and procedural difficulties but is theoretically possible. Again, there exist no Taiwan judicial opinions on point in this area.
In short, Taiwan statutes provide a theoretical basis for successor liability in Taiwan. However, there is limited judicial guidance as to specific application. Under these circumstances, Buyers would do well to foreclose the possibility of inadvertently acquiring unwanted liabilities by (i) conducting thorough legal diligence to identify potential unwanted liabilities; (ii) entering into well-drafted purchase agreements pursuant to which (A) Seller makes adequate representations and warranties with respect to, and (B) Buyer expressly excludes the assumption of, any such liabilities; (iii) refraining from conduct that would indicate Buyer’s assumption of any excluded liabilities; (iv) ensuring that Seller properly notifies all of its Creditors of any proposed sale of all or substantially all of its assets; (v) having Seller make adequate indemnifications; and (vi) if possible, providing for an escrow fund against which indemnification obligations may be claimed.
For more information on mergers, acquisitions, and foreign investment matters in Taiwan, please contact Gregory Buxton at firstname.lastname@example.org or +886 223112345 ext. 548.